Gender and Agricultural mechanization:
How far do women farmers benefit? Key guiding questions
This guide provides critical questions for agricultural researchers and development workers to ensure that gender is adequately addressed in research design and interventions in agricultural machineries. It includes stories about machineries and their gender implications from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Gender-responsive participatory video
Participatory-video is a research technique in which farmers film and publicly screen interviews with their peers. It is a powerful tool to build relationships between researchers and farmers and collect the real voices of the different social groups in the community. This guide has been prepared for researchers and development practitioners who are interested in applying this technique.
Gender Checklist for introducing new technologies to men and women
This checklist is intended to help FoodSTART+ staff and partners ensure that gender is adequately addressed in their workplans and interventions. Considering gender dimensions of farming activities helps us to identify context-specific social factors that support/hinder uptake of new technologies. The checklist has two sections; understanding gendered interests and preferences; and understanding gendered decision-making power.
Gender Action Learning System (GALS)
‘It does not take generations to change gender relations’
(quote from GALS training participant)
It is exactly this belief that led to the development of the Gender Action Learning System (GALS) as part of Oxfam’s WEMAN programme (see more here). GALS is a methodology for community-led empowerment. It aims to support both women and men to have more control over their lives, as well as to catalyse a sustainable movement for gender justice.
GALS starts with visioning, mapping and self-analysis. Individual women and men, in communities, organizations or institutions, draw visions for their lives. Participants then analyse their current situations and identify opportunities and challenges that may affect the realization of their vision. After that, they identify their targets and milestones, and then set activities on the road towards the achievement of their vision.
Based on the insights from these exercises, participants come to realise that gender inequality affects their livelihoods and welfare and limits the achievement of their visions. Participants link up with others to support each other in their journeys towards change. This is called ‘peer learning’. With their own individual vision journey, participants identify others in their families, social and work-related networks to share gender messages and GALS tools. Based on self-interest in those others to change their behaviour, GALS scales up through voluntary ‘pyramid marketing’, and starts a movement of people demonstrating that they benefit from equality between women and men.
By doing this, individual vision journeys are aggregated and analysed within family, groups, communities and institutions to make everyone (woman or man, ethnic majority or minority, rich or poor) part of decision making. All the exercises, analyses, planning and negotiation is done with drawings (visual diagramming tools) rather than writing. It triggers creative solutions, enables inclusive discussions, and brings marginalized people in a better position to negotiate with educated power holders.
GALS is designed as a complementary methodology for economic development interventions like agricultural value chain development, microfinance and economic policy and planning. It turns ‘project-led’ or ‘top-down’ development into a win-win process in which marginalized people, who normally don’t have a voice, show the pathways for everyone (marginalized people in communities, private sector and institutional stakeholders) to benefit.
GALS was introduced in Vietnam by the end of 2014 and applied in the chicken, pork and shrimp value chains since mid – 2015, aiming to promote gender equality and economic development for smallholder farmers involved in these value chains. In 2017, Oxfam in Vietnam and CECEM developed Vietnamese GALS manuals which were adapted in Vietnam context.
Social Analysis and Action
Social Analysis and Action (SAA) is a facilitated process through which individuals and communities explore and challenge the social norms, beliefs and practices that shape their lives and health. The goal of SAA is to catalyze a community-led change process through which community members challenge restrictive norms and act together to create more equitable gender norms as well as community support for sexual, reproductive and maternal health and rights. Unique and central to SAA is that the process of critical reflection and dialogue begins with CARE staff and SAA facilitators to prepare ourselves for implementing SAA with the community. For more information, visit here
Farmer’s Field and Business School Toolkit
The Farmers’ Field and Business Schools are a product of the CARE Pathways program, and focus on a learning by doing approach, putting farmers at the heart of learning and decision-making around new agricultural techniques. So far, working with FFBS has led to 65-75% adoption of improved agricultural techniques among the 50,000 women who are part of the Pathways program. For more information, visit here
Lessons learnt from Oxfam’s Women’s Economic Leadership (WEL) program implemented in Lao Cai and Ninh Thuan provinces
Photovoice Book “ Breaking out of the cocoon” – Community-led knowledge creation for women’s economic empowerment
Story has it that there was once a person who saw a butterfly struggling to emerge from its cocoon, so he/she decided to cut it for the butterfly to get out. Little did he/she know that his action prevented it from flying. The butterfly could only crawl around its cocoon, causing the wrinkles on its wings and eventually death. The struggle to break out of the cocoon is necessary for the butterfly to become strong and capable of flying.
This book documents the stories of people from different regions of Vietnam on their process of realization and struggle to emerge from the cocoon formed by their own prejudice and social pressure that: “A good wife must obey”, “Women must take CARE of all the house work”, “Men must decide everything”, “Girls need not study much”, “Getting an education is the only road for success”, “Anywhere is better than my hometown”. This process does not only help them transform – become stronger and more confident but also help them realize the value of dreams and determination to chase their own aspirations.
62 story-photos introduced in this book were taken by 25 farmers representing four ethnic communities of Kinh, Tay, Chinese, Khmer in Lao Cai, Bac Giang, Soc Trang and Ca Mau provinces. These were selected from more than 5,000 products by 96 farmers who participated in a Photo Voice project, funded by Oxfam International ‘s Knowledge Fund, Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). This project was co-operated by Oxfam in Vietnam and CECEM Training & Consultancy Joinstock Company in the period from September 2016 to March 2017.
Seeing through the gender lens: Capturing gender-sensitive stories in agricultural research and development
How to write engaging yet sensitive content dealing with gender issues?
Africa Rising has compiled a short set of guidelines for gender-sensitive storytelling in agricultural research and development. The guidelines offer practical examples to help promote gender inclusion and challenge gender stereotypes.
Check out this great resource here